Plane can be considered the longitude plane because the great circle made by its intersection with sphere S is always a line of longitude. Plane can be considered the tangent plane since it always contains a line tangent to circle C at point P. The dihedral angle between planes and is angle , the angle of interest.

Plane can be considered the elevation plane and it stays perpendicular to plane and passes through sphere center S_{O} and point P. The smallest angle between the cardinal axis of the sphere and plane is angle , or ∠S_{N}S_{O}P.

Point P can be defined as an arc length along circle C equal to angle , or ∠S_{N}C_{O}P.

The angle between the axis of cone N and the cardinal axis of sphere S is angle , or ∠S_{N}S_{O}C_{O}.